Identifiant du topic: HORIZON-CL5-2022-D2-01-01

Sustainable processing and refining of battery grade graphite (Batteries Partnership)

Type d'action : HORIZON Innovation Actions
Nombre d'étapes : Single stage
Date d'ouverture : 28 avril 2022
Date de clôture : 06 septembre 2022 17:00
Budget : €10 000 000
Call : Cross-sectoral solutions for the climate transition
Call Identifier : HORIZON-CL5-2022-D2-01
Description :


For graphite, both natural and synthetic graphite production for the EV market take place almost exclusively in China. Although there is some existing mining of Natural graphite in Europe, scaling these sources for the active anode material needs within Europe will be very challenging as (i) extensive graphite exploration and mining would be needed[1], and (ii) almost all of the refining capacity is based in China. The main challenges in refining are low yield in the spheronisation and the use of large amounts of hydrofluoric acid in the refining step.

For synthetic graphite, by-products of oil distillation are used as the starting point, followed by calcining, milling, shaping and graphitisation. This process produces high quality anode graphite (enabling long lifetimes and fast charging) but is energy intensive and causes environmental emissions (CO2, PAH). Opportunities to overcome all these problems exist already in Europe but need further development and investment to reach the required scale.

Project results are expected to contribute to all of the following expected outcomes on either natural or synthetic graphite production respectively:

  • Decreased dependency of Europe on imported battery grade graphite and decreased risk in European Battery supply chains.
  • Graphite (both natural and synthetic) competitively produced and refined in Europe in a sustainable and socially acceptable way improving the competitiveness of European batteries.
  • Graphite leveraging the potential for fast charging of batteries, one of the key factors for the user acceptance of electric vehicles.
  • Reduced carbon and environmental emissions from the anode material supply chain.
  • Projects should contribute to European Raw Materials Alliance objectives.

The Synthetic graphite projects are expected to focus additionally on:

  • System prototype demonstration of battery grade anode graphite material with high energy density, long lifetime and quality enabling fast charging, produced with increased yield and lower environmental footprint.
  • As a longer-term option, biocarbon alternatives to petroleum coke are expected to be developed to ensure long term sustainable supply.

The Natural graphite projects are expected to focus additionally on:

  • Advanced refining of Natural graphite to improve the yield of battery grade products and lower the environmental footprint.


  • Enabling European graphite production – with vertical integration into the European battery production. Resource efficient sustainable production of both synthetic and natural graphite emphasising reduction of energy consumption, CO2 emissions, chemical use and the optimisation of recovery yield and raw material consumption. Enhance versatility regarding products and usable primary/secondary raw materials.
  • Development of solutions for combined use of natural and synthetic graphite.
  • For natural graphite: improving purification, milling, shaping and coating technologies that improve the performance characteristics of natural graphite.
  • Improving the yield of spheronised products from natural graphite concentrate.
  • Development of a non-HF purification technology to produce battery-grade anode material from spheronised natural graphite.
  • Developing improved coating technologies for natural graphite that will increase the performance characteristics of natural compared to synthetic.
  • For synthetic graphite: Improving graphitisation, calcining, milling, shaping and coating that improve the performance characteristics of synthetic graphite.
  • The use of other available European carbon options like biobased anode carbon and by-products from anode material production as raw materials for synthetic graphite are expected to be developed.
  • Development of new processes for synthetic graphite production from natural gas pyrolysis.
  • Reduction of process discharge and emissions in synthetic graphite production.

This topic implements the co-programmed European Partnership on ‘Towards a competitive European industrial battery value chain for stationary applications and e-mobility’.

Specific Topic Conditions:

Activities are expected to achieve TRL 6-7 by the end of the project – see General Annex B.

Cross-cutting Priorities:

Artificial IntelligenceCo-programmed European PartnershipsDigital Agenda

[1]Natural graphite has been included in the Critical Raw Materials list,…